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Sabrina Ruffino Giummara

Sabrina Ruffino Giummara is Assistant Curator (One Collection) at the Science Museum Group.

A common emblem for medicine depicts one or two snakes coiling up a staff. This symbol, often referred to as a ‘caduceus’, has been frequently used as a pharmacy or healthcare company crest. However, the term ‘caduceus’ has a distinct meaning and historically has been confused with the real first medical symbol: the ‘Rod of Asclepius’.